Most rugged rootstock for apples. Vigorous, deep-rooted, tolerates
wet soil, dry soil, poor soil. Cold hardy. Trees slower to bear than
semi-dwarfs. Apparently resistant to oak-root fungus. Un-pruned tree
height of standard varieties 18-30 ft.; tree may be kept to any height
desired with summer pruning. Seed from Golden Delicious.
M 111 Excellent all-around rootstock for apples. Induces bearing
at a younger age than standards. Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, poor
soil, soil with high temperatures. Resists woolly apple aphids, collar
rot and fireblight. Apparently resistant to oak-root fungus. Trees
dwarfed to 80-90% of standard, or about 15-25 ft.; can be further
controlled with summer pruning. Very cold hardy, does not promote
early bud break; used in Ontario, Canada. Rarely suckers.
M 7 (EMLA-7) Dwarfing rootstock for apples. Unpruned tree height
2/3 the size of standard, or about 12-20 ft.; can be held to any
height with summer pruning. Induces early and heavy bearing. Resistant
to fireblight and powdery mildew, moderately resistant to collar
rot. Has good anchorage. Very winter hardy, widely adapted.
M 26 Dwarfing rootstock for apples. Trees dwarfed to 50% of standard,
about 10-15 ft. if not pruned. Trees on M-26 produce high quality
fruit at a very young age. Young trees require staking in windy locations.
Produces very few suckers. Generally easier to manage than M-7, but
somewhat less cold hardy. Not recommended for badly drained sites.
Drought sensitive and shallow rooted. Trees on M-26 may be held to
any desired height by summer pruning.
M 27 Extremely dwarfing rootstock for apples. Trees dwarfed to 6-8
feet; ideal for high density planting, small spaces in garden, tub
growing. Induces early and heavy bearing of slightly smaller than
average fruit. Shallow root system; young trees require staking.
Prefers well-drained soil. Rarely suckers. Resistant to fireblight.
Winter hardy in cold areas if roots can be protected from severe
MAZZARD (Mazz.) Standard rootstock for sweet cherries; unpruned
tree height of standard varieties is 30-40 ft.; trees may be held
to any height with summer pruning. Vigorous, more tolerant of wet
soils than Mahaleb, but good drainage still required. Resistant to
root-knot nematodes and oak-root fungus. Well anchored. Relatively
MAHALEB (Mah.) The most winter hardy of the commonly used cherry
rootstocks. Resists crown gall, bacterial canker, some nematodes.
Not tolerant of wet soils. Standard varieties slightly dwarfed to
about 85% of their height on Mazzard, or about 25-35 ft. Can be held
at any height with summer pruning. Induces early, heavy bearing.
GM61/1 Dwarfing rootstock for sweet cherries.
Standard cherry varieties are dwarfed to about one half the size
of standard (15-20 ft. if not pruned to control height even further)
and bear heavily at a young age. Relatively tolerant of wet soils.
(WN) Pear seeding rootstock for standard pears. Vigorous,
relatively tolerant of wet soils, cold hardy. Resistant to pear
decline and oak-root fungus. Unpruned trees on Winter Nelis can
reach 15-25 feet in height, but can be held to any height with
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SEEDLING (Pear) Standard rootstock for European and
hybrid pears. Seed usually from Bartlett. Long-lived, vigorous trees
reach 15-25 ft.; can control size with summer pruning. Relatively
tolerant of wet soils and drought. Disease resistant; resistant to
oak-root fungus. Durable, productive.
(Betula) Standard rootstock
for Asian and flowering pears. More vigorous than Calleryana; unpruned
tree height of fruiting
varieties 15-25 ft.; tree may be held to any height with summer pruning.
Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, alkaline soil. Resistant to pear decline.
More cold hardy than Calleryana, to at least -10° F.
OLD HOME x FARMINGDALE
333 (OHxF 333) For European and Asian pears.
Trees dwarfed to 2/3 the size of standard, or about 12-18 ft.; easily
kept smaller with summer pruning. Productive and precocious. Highly
resistant to fireblight and pear decline and moderately tolerant
of crown gall. Well anchored and does not sucker. Highly resistant
to winter injury; widely adapted.
LOVELL (Lov.) Vigorous, standard rootstock for plums, peaches, nectarines,
apricots, prunes, almonds. More tolerant of wet soils than Nemaguard;
also more cold hardy. Susceptible to nematodes in sandy soils. Provides
good anchorage and high degree of disease resistance. Unpruned tree
height of standard varieties 15-25 ft.; size can be controlled further
with summer pruning.
MARIANNA 26-24 (Mari.) Standard rootstock for apricots, plums, prunes,
most almonds. Mature trees comparatively small, 15-20 ft. if unpruned;
can be kept smaller with summer pruning. Shallow root system, much
more tolerant of wet soils than Lovell or Nemaguard; is not tolerant
of hot soils. Has tendency to sucker. Resistant to oak-root fungus,
root-knot nematodes, root rot.
MYROBALAN 29C (Myro.) Excellent, all-around rootstock for apricots,
plums, almonds. Shallow but vigorous root system tolerates wet soils
and is widely adapted; is more deeply rooted than Marianna. Resistant
to root-knot nematodes and has some resistance to oak-root fungus.
Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 ft., but can control
size further with summer pruning. Winter hardy in Michigan.
NEMAGUARD (Nema.) Standard rootstock for
nectarines, peaches, apricots, plums, prunes, almonds. Vigorous,
resists root-knot nematode. Excellent
for well drained soils. In heavy or poorly drained soil, plant on
mound or hill. May not be winter hardy below 5°F. Unpruned tree
height of standard varieties 15-25 ft., size can be controlled further
with summer pruning.
CITATION (Cit.) Peaches and nectarines dwarfed to 8-14 ft.; apricots
and plums dwarfed to 12-18 ft. Very tolerant of wet soil; not drought
tolerant(induces early dormancy in dry soil) so needs very regular
water in hot climates; a top dressing of mulch can help maintain
soil moisture. Resists root-knot nematodes. Induces heavy bearing
at a young age. Very winter hardy. Strong and well anchored. Pat.
No. 5112 (Zaiger)
BLACK (NCB) Black walnut seedling. Vigorous; resistant
to Verticillium wilt, oak-root fungus and root knot.